VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 2004

Review Paper

1. A. HALL, M. BLÜMMEL, W. THORPE, F.R. BIDINGER AND C.T. HASH
Sorghum and Pearl Millet as Food-feed-crops in India
Research Papers

2. S. TOPPO, A. B. MANDAL AND A.V. ELANGOVAN
Dietary Energy and Protein Requirements of Egg Type (CARI Sonali) Starting Chicks
3. D. NAGALAKSHMI, D. NARSIMHA REDDY AND M. KISHAN KUMAR
Performance of Murrah Buffaloes Fed Expander Pelleted Cotton Straw Based Diets
4. B. KUNDU, P. BISWAS AND D. RAJENDRAN
Effect of Inclusion of Microbial Phytase in Feed by Gradual Replacement of Di-calcium Phosphate on Performance of Commercial Broiler Chicken
5. T. MADHAVA RAO, A.RAVI, D. SRINIVASA RAO, J. RAMA PRASAD, P. SUDHAKARA REDDY AND Z. PRABHAKARA RAO
Effect of Inclusion of Guava (Psidium guajava) Pomace in Pig Diets on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics
6. M.V.L.N. RAJU, G. SHYAMSUNDER, V.R. SADAGOPAN, A.V. ELANGOVAN, M.R. REDDY AND S.V. RAMA RAO
Replacement of Maize with Jowar, Bajra or Ragi in Broiler Chicken Diets
7. SHARMILA RANE, A.K. PUNIYA AND KISHAN SINGH
Biochemical Changes on Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane Bagasse Using Fungal Cultures and Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria
Short Communications

8. D. LALL, P. SIKKA, S. KHANNA AND T.R. CHAUHAN

Effect of High Plane of Nutrition and Mineral Supplementation on Blood Mineral Profile, Thyroid Hormones and Fertility Status of Anestrus Buffaloes
9. P. VIJAYAKUMAR, FRANCIS XAVIER, LEENA ANIL
Feeding Management of Dogs in Central Kerala-A Report
10. S.B. NAGESWARA RAO, R. C. CHOPRA AND V. RADHIKA
Effect of Supplementing Bentonite or Activated Charcoal on certain Blood Parameters of Young Goats fed Diets with or without added Aflatoxin B
11. K. K. SINGH, R. JONES, P. N. DWIVEDI AND S. K. NAG

Mineral Status of Silage Made from Various Temperate Forages in Relation to Beef Cattle Requirement

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Research Papers

Sorghum and Pearl Millet as Food-feed-crops in India

A. Hall1, M. Blümmel2*, W. Thorpe2,
F.R. Bidinger3 and C.T. Hash3
1. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich
Chatham Martime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
2. International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
Patancheru 502 324, India
3. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), c/o ICRISAT
Patancheru-502 324, India

(Received November 18, 2003)

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the role of and demand for food-feed-crops, that is crops that are grown to provide both grain for human food and crop residues as fodder for ruminant livestock. The paper argues that the predicted increase in demand for livestock products will coincide with shrinking common property resources and an increasing scarcity of arable land and water resulting in an increase in the importance of food-feed-crops smallholder crop- ruminant livestock systems. As a consequence, the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and the International Livestock Research Institute have implemented collaborative research on the genetic improvement of fodder value of food-feed-crops, with emphasis on sorghum and pearl millet, which are important crops for the rural poor. The research has demonstrated the existence of significant genetic variation for fodder quality traits and it has identified cultivars that provide superior stover quality and quantity without detriment to grain yield. Initial estimates of heritability of pertinent stover quality traits were in the order of 0.7 suggesting good opportunities for further improvement of stover quality by genetic enhancement. However, certain socio-economic conditions need to be met for large-scale uptake of new varieties and hybrids.


Key words : Sorghum, Pearl millet, Stover quality, Genetic improvement.

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Dietary Energy and Protein Requirements of Egg Type (CARI Sonali) Starting Chicks

S. Toppo*, A. B. Mandal and A.V. Elangovan
Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division
Central Avian Research Institute
Izatnagar, 243 122, India

(Received March 07, 2003)

ABSTRACT

Six experimental diets with two energy levels (2600 and 2800 kcal ME/kg) and three protein levels (18, 20, 22% CP) were formulated. Day-old CARI Sonali male and female chicks (n=288) were divided into 12 groups of 12 chicks each (12 x 12 x 2 sexes). Each dietary treatment was allotted with four groups of chicks i.e. two groups each of male and female. Feed intake and body weight changes were recorded weekly upto 8th week of age. A metabolism trial comprising of three days collection period was conducted at 8th week of age involving all the birds. Results indicated that body weight was significantly (P<0.05) more on high-energy diet (2800 kcal ME/kg) at 8th week of age. However, protein levels had significant effect throughout the developing phase. Body weight increased vis-a-vis increase in protein level from 18 to 20 per cent CP but no further increase in weight was observed by increasing protein level (22%) in the diet. Total feed intake (P<0.01) and feed conversion ratio (FCR, P<0.05) were higher in low energy diet. Body weight, feed intake and FCR were statistically similar between male and female chicks. The birds under low energy group consumed more protein per unit gain in body weight, while protein efficiency decreased linearly with decrease in protein level. Energetic efficiency did not differ either due to dietary energy or protein level. It is concluded that the optimum energy and protein requirements for CARI Sonali chicks is 2800 kcal ME /kg and 18 per cent CP with 1.0 per cent lysine and 0.38 per cent methionine for the starting phase.


Key words: Energy, Protein, Requirement, Egg-type chicken, Growth.

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Performance of Murrah Buffaloes Fed Expander Pelleted Cotton Straw Based Diets

D. Nagalakshmi*, D. Narsimha Reddy and M. Kishan Kumar1
Feed Technology Unit, Department of Animal Nutrition
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University
Rajenderanagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India

(Received February 07, 2003)

ABSTRACT

Cotton straw was incorporated as sole source of roughage (30%) in a complete diet and expanded into pellets. This diet was compared with a conventional ration consisting of concentrate mixture, limited quantity of green fodder and ad libitum sorghum straw. These feeds were fed individually to 12 graded Murrah buffaloes (6 in each group) for 180 days in a feeding-cum-digestion trial using completely randomized design. The dry matter (DM) consumption was higher (P<0.05) when fed expanded complete diet (15.54 kg/d) in comparison to conventional diet (14.64 kg/d). However, the DM intake/100 kg body weight was similar in both the groups and was higher than the standard recommended requirements. The buffaloes fed expanded complete diet recorded higher (P<0.01) crude protein (CP), ether extract, cell content and gross energy (P<0.05) digestibilities compared to those fed conventional ration. The digestibility of other nutrients and fibre fractions remained comparable. The digestible CP, digestible and metabolisable energy of expanded complete diet was higher (P<0.01) but total digestible nutrients were similar compared to conventional ration. The milk yield was similar in both the groups. The 4% FCM, fat % and fat yield in milk was higher (P<0.05) when fed expander pelleted diet. The DM intake /kg FCM production was 1.88 kg on complete diet and 2.41 kg on conventional diet. The expander processing increased (P<0.01) the cost of feed, however, the cost of feed/kg FCM of expanded complete diet was comparable to that of conventional ration. The results of the present study indicated that cotton straw could be fed to lactating buffaloes as roughage source.


Key words: Cotton straw, Expander processing, Buffaloes, Digestibilities, Milk

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Effect of Inclusion of Microbial Phytase in Feed by Gradual Replacement of Di-calcium Phosphate on Performance of Commercial Broiler Chicken

B. Kundu, P. Biswas and D. Rajendran*
Department of Animal Nutrition
West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences
Kolkata-700 037, India

(Received December 31, 2002)

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted on day old broiler chicks to study the effect of inclusion of phytase in broiler diet. Day-old broiler chicks (n=80) were randomly distributed into four groups viz., group T1, T2, T3, and C consisting of twenty chicks each. Enzyme phytase was added @ 300g/ton of feed with the gradual replacement of Di-calcium phosphate (DCP) @ 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kg /ton in T1, T2 and T3 experimental groups, respectively. The experimental group C was not supplemented with phytase enzyme and di-calcium phosphate was added @ 10 kg/ton of feed. Effect of dietary phytase was assessed by weekly body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, biochemical and enzymatic analysis of serum, radiological and chemical assay (Ca, P, Cu and Zn) of bone. GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase in serum were also estimated to observe the effect of exogenous enzymes on vital organs. Results revealed no significant differences in terms of feed consumption, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among dietary treatments. Biochemical analysis of serum showed no statistical difference in the levels of Ca, P, Cu, Fe, and Zn and also in activities of GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase enzyme in serum among the different groups. Moist and dry weight of femur bone also did not differ significantly. Radiological study of the femur bones also did not reveal any major difference among the groups. Cost benefit analysis showed highest net income per bird in T3 where DCP was completely withdrawn.


Key words : Phytase, Growth, Bone mineralization, Blood parameters, Broiler chicken.

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Effect of Inclusion of Guava (Psidium guajava) Pomace in Pig Diets on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Carcass Characteristics

T. Madhava Rao, A.Ravi*, D.Srinivasa Rao, J. Rama Prasad1,
P. Sudhakara Reddy2 and Z. Prabhakara Rao1
All India Co-coordinated Research Project on Pigs
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University
Tirupati-517 502, India

(Received January 01, 2003)

ABSTRACT

Twenty four crossbred (Large White Yorkshire x Desi) male pigs (20.52±0.22 kg) were divided into four equal groups and fed on diets containing sun dried guava (Psidium guajava) pomace at 0 (D1), 10 (D2), 20 (D3) and 30 (D4) per cent levels in grower (20-35 kg live weight) and finisher (35-60 kg live weight) diets. The digestibility of all the organic nutrients and cell wall constituents were significantly decreased during grower phase while in the finisher phase there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in the digestibility of DM, NDF and hemi-cellulose. The CP digestibility was significantly decreased during both the phases. The N-retention (g/d) was not significantly affected during both the phases of feeding. There was a non-significant decrease in the average daily gain (ADG) while the feed/kg gain was significantly (P<0.05) increased during grower phase. During the finisher phase, significantly (P<0.01) higher ADG was observed in pigs fed on D3 (371g) or D4 (375g) than those fed on D1 (316g) or D2 (323g) while the feed/kg gain was 5.92, 5.76, 5.58 and 6.11 for diets D1 to D4, respectively and the differences were not significantly different. For the overall growth phase, the pigs fed on D3 and D4 had taken fewer (P<0.01) number of days with significantly higher (P<0.01) ADG than those fed on D1 or D2. The cost of feed (Rs./kg) gain was 31.84, 31.43, 30.75 and 32.69 for diets D1 to D4, respectively and was not significantly different. There were no significant differences among the treatments in the carcass characteristics. It is concluded that inclusion of sun dried guava pomace up to 30 per cent in diets of crossbred pigs had not significantly affected the growth performance and the carcass characteristics.


Key words: Crossbred pigs, Guava pomace, Growth, Nutrient utilization, Carcass traits.

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Replacement of Maize with Jowar, Bajra or Ragi in Broiler Chicken Diets

M.V.L.N. Raju*, G. Shyamsunder, V.R. Sadagopan,
A.V. Elangovan, M.R. Reddy and S.V. Rama Rao
Project Directorate on Poultry (ICAR)
Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030, India

(Received January 27, 2003)

ABSTRACT

The efficiency of jowar (Sorghum vulgare), bajra (Pennisetum typhoides) and unground-ragi (Eleusine coracana) as individual sources of energy in lieu of yellow maize on w/w basis was evaluated in broiler diets. The three test cereals-based diets were fed either as such or supplemented with a multi-enzyme mix containing amylase, protease, cellulase, lipase and phytase, forming a total of seven treatment groups, one for the control and two treatments each for bajra, jowar and ragi, with and without enzyme. A total of 168 commercial broiler chicks were fed the diets from one to five weeks of age. Performance of broilers fed bajra and jowar in terms of body weight (1193 and 1164 g), feed efficiency (2.26 and 2.26) and dry matter metabolizability (63.3 and 66.0%) was similar to maize (1217 g, 2.09 and 65.5%, respectively), irrespective of differences in energy levels. Ragi adversely affected body weight (1054g) and feed efficiency (2.47). Slaughter yields were similar in all the groups but weight of abdominal fat was significantly (P<0.05) more in jowar group (1.57 vs 0.77% in control). Weights of gizzard (P<0.01) and giblets and length of small intestine (P<0.05) were significantly more in ragi. The results indicate the utility of bajra and jowar as effective alternatives to maize, while ragi in whole form was not suitable for inclusion in broiler diets.


Key words : Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Broiler chicken, Diets.

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Biochemical Changes on Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane Bagasse Using Fungal Cultures and Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria

Sharmila Rane, A.K. Puniya and Kishan Singh*
Dairy Microbiology Division
National Dairy Research Institute
Karnal-132 001, India

(Received November 11, 2002)

ABSTRACT

Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) of sugarcane bagasse was carried out for 7 days at 65 per cent moisture, with and without Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus fimetarius (3-5%) in combination with Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter chroococcum (3-5%). Maximum dry matter loss (3.44%) was observed with C. fimetarius and A. chroococcum. The digestibility and CP content of bagasse after inoculation with P. ostreatus and A. brasilense were in the range of 44.42 to 46.67 and 4.31 to 4.58 per cent, respectively. The lowering of ADL from 11.84 to 11.02 per cent affected biodegradation taking place during SSF. The maximum process efficiency (2.10%) was due to the synergistic growth of P. ostreatus and A. chroococcum.


Key words: Solid state fermentation, Bagasse, Fungal cultures, N-fixing bacteria.

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Short Communication

Effect of High Plane of Nutrition and Mineral Supplementation on Blood Mineral Profile, Thyroid Hormones and Fertility Status of Anestrus Buffaloes

D. Lall*, P. Sikka, S. Khanna and T.R. Chauhan
Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Sirsa Road, Hisar-125 001, India

(Received December 13, 2002)

ABSTRACT

Twenty one non-pregnant buffalo heifers (3-4 yrs) showing anestrus were taken from the institute's herd and given high plane (120%) of nutrition (Kearl, 1982) and mineral mixture (3% including common salt) in their concentrate mixture. Blood samples from these animals were collected before the start of experiment (0 day), then at 30 and 60 days and the serum samples were analysed for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), besides thyroid hormones viz. triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4). Calcium content of the samples showed little variation with the dietary treatment and ranged between 7.31 to 7.76 mg/dl. Phosphorus content improved significantly (P<0.05) over the period and the levels were 4.65±0.33, 5.35±0.23 and 5.26±0.17 mg/dl, at 0, 30 and 60 days, respectively. intervals. Zn content also improved significantly (P<0.05) over the period and were 0.58±0.08, 1.08±.02 and 1.34±0.04 µg/ml respectively. Cu was not influenced with the dietary treatment and ranged between 0.69 to 0.74 ug/ml. Serum T3 and T4 levels in the samples were 1.09±0.25, 1.90±0.50, 2.09±0.25 ng/ml and 24.70±3.7, 20.27±1.5, 19.92±3.4 ng/ml at 0, 30 and 60 days, respectively. Eighteen out of 21 heifers came into heat and became pregnant within first 3 months of the start of this dietary treatment. It is thus inferred that high plane of nutrition with proper mineral supplementation can bring majority of the anestrous buffaloes into estrous.


Key Words: Buffaloes, Mineral supplementation, Blood, Thyroid hormones, Fertility.

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Feeding Management of Dogs in Central Kerala
- A Report

P. Vijayakumar*, Francis Xavier, Leena Anil
Department of Livestock Production Management
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Mannuthy-680 651, India.

(Received April 24, 2003)

ABSTRACT

A study was undertaken to evaluate the feeding management of dogs by the dog owners in Central Kerala. Most of the dog owners fed their dogs with special home cooked, non-vegetarian food twice daily. Only 12 per cent of the respondents got advice from a veterinarian regarding the feeding practices to be followed for their dog. Between three and six months of age, the dogs were fed for the first time with rice and meat. Fully cooked meat, fish, egg, rice, vegetables and milk were fed to most of the dogs. Only one-third of the dogs were fed with vitamin and mineral supplements. About 55 per cent of the dog owners provided bones to their dogs. Nearly 50 per cent of the respondents added common salt to their dog's diet. Majority of the dog owners opined that it is essential to feed milk and meat daily to an adult dog. The study brought out that mostly pets are fed as per the convenience of owners. Hence, there is enough scope for creating awareness regarding scientific feeding practices.


Keywords: Dog, Feeding, Management, Nutrition.

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Effect of Supplementing Bentonite or Activated Charcoal on certain Blood Parameters of Young Goats fed Diets with or without
added Aflatoxin B1

S.B. Nageswara Rao*, R. C. Chopra and V. Radhika1
Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition
National Dairy Research Institute
Karnal-132 001, India

(Received October 23, 2002)

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to find out the detoxification ability of commonly available adsorbents like sodium bentonite (NaB) and activated charcoal (AC) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in post-ruminant goat kids based on exerted effect on blood parameters. Twenty-four male goats (11.91±0.36 kg) were randomly divided into six treatment groups on body weight basis after adapting them on a basal ration consisting of concentrate mixture (maize grain, 25%; barley grain, 27%; groundnut cake (expeller), 10%; mustard cake 10%; wheat bran, 25%; mineral mixture, 2%; salt, 1%) and green maize fodder. The treatment groups were T1 (Basal ration), T4 (T1 + AFB1 @ 300 ppb), T2 (concentrate mixture supplemented with NaB @ 2 kg per 100 Kg), T5 (T2 + AFB1 @ 300 ppb), T3 (concentrate mixture supplemented with activated charcoal (AC) @ 2 kg per 100 Kg), T6 (T3 + AFB1 @ 300 ppb). The serum protein, albumin and globulin values (g/100ml) were found to be similar (P>0.05) between T1 and T4; T2 and T5; T3 and T6 indicating the dose level of 300 ppb did not cause severe liver damage. Serum urea concentration was significantly (P<0.05) declined at 2 months after the experiment in AFB1 fed kids (T4) compared to its control. NaB has got protective effect on serum urea concentration at the end of the experiment whereas AC has got protective effect throughout the experiment. Non-significant (P>0.05) elevation of serum GOT (units/ml) at one month after the experiment in case of T4 (81.73±8.81) and T5 (80.31±12.81) was observed compared to their respective controls. However, the elevation was not conspicuous in T6 (64.26±3.81) at one month after the experiment indicating the detoxification ability of AC. Alkaline phosphates values have been significantly lowered (P<0.05) in T6 from the initial values indicating detoxification ability of AC against AFB1 compared to NaB supplemented group. It may be concluded from the results that AC had exerted complete detoxification effect whereas NaB had exerted partial effect based on studied blood parameters.


Key words: Activated charcoal, Aflatoxin B1, Bentonite, Goats.

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Mineral Status of Silage Made from Various Temperate Forages in Relation to Beef Cattle Requirement

K. K. Singh*, R. Jones, P. N. Dwivedi* and S. K. Nag1
Department of Animal Sciences and Microbiology
Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research
Aberystwyth, U.K.

(Received September 05, 2002)

ABSTRACT

Macro minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sodium) and micro minerals (copper, manganese, zinc and iron) status of some temperate forage silages were studied. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) silage, the major forage source in temperate region, was inadequate in Mg (0.12 %), Cu (4.71 ppm) and Zn (14.02 ppm). Whereas, alternative forage silages (kale- Brassica oleracea, lotus- Lotus conrniculatus, sainfoin- Onobrychis viciifolia, lucerne- Medicago sativa and red clover- Trifolium pratense) were good source of macro and micro minerals except copper and zinc which were below the critical levels of 8 and 30 ppm, respectively suggested for beef and lactating dairy cows. It is concluded that alternative forages are better in terms of macro and micro minerals as compared to native perennial ryegrass silage. However, certain minerals like magnesium, copper and zinc needs to be supplemented in the diet of beef and dairy cows.


Key words: Temperate forage, Silages, Macro and micro minerals, Beef cows

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