VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, January 2008


Review Paper

1.  N.K.S. GOWDA AND D.R. LEDOUX

Research Paper

2. M.R. GARG, B.M. BHANDERI, S. SATHISH KUMAR AND P.L. SHERASIA

Macro and Micro Mineral Status of Dairy Animals in Hilly Zone of Kerala

3. J.S.RAMGAOKAR, A.K. VERMA, P. SINGH AND U.R. MEHRA
Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Urinary Excretion and Plasma Concentration of Purine Derivatives in Crossbred Bulls

4.A.K. SHINDE AND S.K. SANKHYAN

Mineral Contents of Locally Available Feeds and Fodders in Flood Prone Eastern Plains of Rajasthan and Dietary Status in Ruminants

5. 
M.C. SHIVAKUMAR, B. UMAKANTHA AND S.V. HOSAMANI

Influence of Virginiamycin on Performance of Broilers Fed Two Levels of Energy

6. M.R. GARG, B.M. BHANDERI AND P.L. SHERASIA
Assessment of Macro and Micro Minerals Status of Milch Animals for Developing Area Specific Mineral Mixture for Bharatpur District of Rajasthan

7. S.E. JADHAV, A.K. GARG AND R.S. DASS

Effect of Graded Levels of Zinc Supplementation on Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Male Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Calves

8. S. APPELBAUM AND A. JESU AROCKIA RAJ

Utilization of Canola Oil and Beef Fat Coated Commercial Diets by African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Juveniles

9. J.L. CHAUDHARY AND HEM RAJ JAT

Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Cottonseed on the Reproductive Performance of Surti Buffaloes

10. S.K. PRABHAKAR, P. SARDAR AND R.C. DAS

Effect of Starvation with Subsequent Realimentation with Respect to Compensatory Growth of Indian Major Carp, Rohu (Labeo rohita H.)

11. MADHU SHELLY, S. SAIJPAUL AND P.K. NAIK

Prediction of Grain Content of Compounded Feeds

Short Communications

12. R. NEHRA, G.R. PUROHIT, T. SHARMA, R.K. DHURIA AND R.A. LEGHA

Nutritional Evaluation of Sewan (Lasiurus sindicus) Grass Hay in Marwari Horses of Arid Region

13. P.VASAN, NARAYAN DUTTA, A.B. MANDAL AND K. SHARMA
Effect of Grinding on Apparent and True Digestibilities of Amino Acids of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoides) in Adult Roosters

14. PUNEET KUMAR, Y. PRASAD, R. RANJAN, D. SWARUP, A.K. PATTANAIK AND R.C. PATRA
Accumulation Patterns of Cadmium in Tissues of Indian Catfish Clarias batrachus

15. P.P. DAS, B. ROY AND PARIMAL SARDAR
Evaluation of Paddy Straw Based Complete Feeds through In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility

16. S.K. SAHOO, S.K. NASKAR, B.K. PANDA, C.M. MOHAPATRA, M.K. PADHI, S.C. GIRI AND S.K. PANDA

Performance of the Broiler on Replacement of Maize with Different Levels of Whole and Peeled Cassava Tuber Meals

17. AJAIB SINGH, M.S. GILL, K.P. PURI AND U.S. TIWANA

Comparative Evaluation of Ryegrass Varieties in Buffalo Calves by Chemical, In situ and In vivo Techniques

18. s.k. das and hema tripathi

Livestock Feeds and Feeding Practices in Rural Sundarbans Delta of India

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Review Paper
 
Use of Antioxidants in Amelioration of Mycotoxin Toxicity: A Review

N.K.S. Gowda* and D.R. Ledoux

Mycotoxin Research Laboratory, Division of Animal Sciences
University of Missouri, Columbia, USA 65211

(Received July 04, 2007)

ABSTRACT

Gowda, N.K.S. and Ledoux, D.R. 2008. Use of antioxidants in amelioration of mycotoxin toxicity: A review. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 1-11.

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of different species of fungi naturally occurring in various feed stuff. Two mycotoxins of major significance to livestock production are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). They cause pathological lesions in liver and kidney through cell damage, release of free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Several synthetic and natural antioxidants have been used to ameliorate the toxic effects of these mycotoxins. Vitamins (A, E, C) and provitamins (â - carotene, carotenoids), phenolic compounds, curcuminoids, and sulfur containing compounds (glutathione, methionine) are known to exhibit antioxidant action against AFB1 and OTA. Some of these compounds are also effective in preventing carcinogenesis during mycotoxicosis. There is a need to evaluate the antioxidant potential of these compounds with emphasis on their stability, effective level of inclusion and effect on other biochemical or tissue functions. Ascertaining and confirming the antioxidant properties of cultivable medicinal/aromatic plants would add value to these products and contribute to their commercial viability.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Antioxidants, Cytotoxicity, Free radicals, Ochratoxin.

*Corresponding author: nksgowda@rediffmail.com


Research Paper

Macro and Micro Mineral Status of Dairy Animals in Hilly Zone of Kerala

M.R. Garg*, B.M. Bhanderi, S. Sathish Kumar and P.L. Sherasia

Productivity Systems, Animal Nutrition & Feed Technology Laboratory,

National Dairy Development Board, Anand-388 001, India

(Received December 19, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Garg, M.R., Bhanderi, B.M., Sathish Kumar, S. and Sherasia, P.L. 2008. Macro and micro mineral status of dairy animals in hilly zone of Kerala. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 13-23.

A study was conducted in the hilly zone of Kerala, to assess the status of certain macro and microminerals in dairy animals, by analyzing feed and fodder samples. Paddy straw was major dry roughage available for feeding dairy animals and found to be low in Ca (0.11%), P (0.09%), S (0.11%), Cu (1.79 ppm) and Zn (11.69 ppm). Amongst green fodders, mainly local grasses and hybrid napier were available and found to be good sources of Ca (0.43%), Mg (0.34%), Cu (13.83 ppm), Mn (74.52 ppm) and Fe(1379 ppm). Azolla was subsidiary green fodder grown in stagnant water by the farmers and found to be a good source of various minerals. The feeds and fodder were found to be rich in K content (1.83%) and Fe (192-3600 ppm). Groundnut cake and copra extraction were major concentrate supplements in the surveyed area. Groundnut cake, copra extraction, rice bran and wheat bran were good sources of P (0.57-1.13%), Mg (0.25-0.45%), S (0.24-0.33%), Cu (17.82-41.22 ppm), Zn (38.40-84.12 ppm) and Mn (44.51-174.5 ppm). The Na content was lower in concentrate ingredients (0.014%) and roughages (0.06%). Se content in feeds and fodder was adequate (0.18-0.83 ppm), however, Co was found to be marginally deficient in feedstuffs (0.10-1.19 ppm). From the present study, it was apparent that in view of the feeding practices followed in the survey area, levels of certain minerals such as Ca, P, S, Zn, Cu and Co were inadequate and much below the requirement of animals yielding 8-11 kg milk (4% fat) per day. Supplementation of area specific mineral mixture with highly bio-available mineral salts could be a cost effective method to improve productive life and productivity of animals in the zone.

Keywords: Calcium, Phosphorus, Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Hilly zone, Cows, Kerala.

*Corresponding author: mrgarg@nddb.coop

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Research Paper

 
Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Urinary Excretion and Plasma Concentration of Purine Derivatives in Crossbred Bulls

 

J.S. Ramgaokar, A.K. Verma*, P. Singh and U.R. Mehra

Animal Nutrition Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute

Izatnagar-243 122, India

(Received February 08, 2007)

ABSTRACT

Ramgaokar, J.S., Verma, A.K., Singh, P. and Mehra, U.R. 2008. Effect of dietary protein levels on urinary excretion and plasma concentration of purine derivatives in crossbred bulls. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 25-34.

The study evaluated the effect of different levels of crude protein (CP) intake on urinary excretion and plasma concentration of purine derivatives (PD) and creatinine in crossbred bulls. In a randomized block design, 15 growing crossbred bulls were fed a mixed diet (1:1) of wheat straw and concentrate mixture (with varying levels of CP) to meet their maintenance requirement for dry matter. A metabolism trial of ten days duration was conducted after 30 days of experimental feeding. The daily urinary excretion of allantoin and other PD decreased with the reduction in CP intake while creatinine excretion remained similar in groups fed at different levels. The microbial nitrogen (MN) supply calculated from the PD excreted in total urine (55.62 to 63.97 g/d) was higher at increased levels of CP intake. The concentration of PD in plasma reflected the differences in MN supply among groups fed at different levels of CP. The glomerular filtration rate (L/d) was unaffected by dietary levels of CP in crossbred bulls. The results of this study revealed that the plasma concentration of PD can be used as an index of microbial protein supply in crossbred bulls fed at different levels of CP.

Keywords: Crossbred bulls, Crude protein level, Purine derivatives, Microbial nitrogen.

*Corresponding author: akverma@ivri.up.nic.in


Research Paper

 
Mineral Contents of Locally Available Feeds and Fodders in Flood Prone Eastern Plains of Rajasthan and Dietary Status in Ruminants

 

A.K. Shinde* and S.K. Sankhyan

Division of Animal Nutrition

Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar-304 501, India

(Received February 08, 2007)

ABSTRACT

Shinde, A.K. and Sankhyan, S.K. 2008. Mineral contents of locally available feeds and fodders in flood prone eastern plains of Rajasthan and dietary status in ruminants. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 35-44.

Mineral contents of common feeds and fodders and dietary mineral composition of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats under existing feeding practices in flood prone eastern plains of Rajasthan have been evaluated to identify the deficiency and development of supplementation strategies. Wheat, barley and sorghum cereal grains contained Ca 0.03-0.50%, P 0.34-0.39%, Mg 0.13-0.27%, Zn 28-36 ppm, Cu 7-8 ppm, Mn 27-50 ppm and Fe 319-365 ppm. Mustard, cotton seed cake, cluster bean grain and gram churi contained Ca 0.49-0.81%, P 0.34-0.60%, Mg 0.46-0.68%, Zn 35-51 ppm, Cu 4-10 ppm, Mn 13-67 ppm and Fe 131-635 ppm. Green fodder contained Ca 0.42-1.00%, P 0.09%, Mg 0.64-0.83%, Zn 23-51 ppm, Cu 3-19 ppm, Mn 86-106 ppm and Fe 925-1536 ppm. Cereal straws and Stover contained Ca 0.47-1.14%, P 0.09-0.18%, Mg 0.18-0.83%, Zn 13-29 ppm, Cu 3-11 ppm, Mn 23-63 ppm and Fe 434-1431 ppm. Tree leaves contained Ca 0.79-1.61%, P 0.09-0.10%, Mg 0.46-0.86%, Zn 24-34 ppm, Cu 9-31 ppm, Mn 34-68 ppm and Fe 555-801 ppm. Cattle and buffaloes in pregnancy and lactation stages were found short of Ca (7-10%) and P (50-56%) requirement. Magnesium content of diet of cattle and buffaloes was adequate and excesses the requirement in all the stages. Zn content during pregnancy and lactation stages in the diet were deficient (14-16%), Cu and Mn contents of diet were adequate and Fe content of diet was considerably higher (1074-1201 ppm) than requirement in the diet. Sheep and goats under existing feeding practices were found short of Ca in their diet. Phosphorus content of diet of sheep and goats in all the stage were below than the requirement owing to grazing resource and tree leaves in the region were primarily poor in P content. Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe intakes of sheep and goats were found to be adequate under the prevailing feeding practices. It was concluded from the study that diet of pregnant and lactating cattle and buffaloes were deficient in Ca, P and Zn and sheep and goats diets were deficient only in Ca and P. Mineral mixtures or concentrate need to be supplemented, to overcome the deficiency and production and health losses.

Keywords: Mineral content, Feed and fodder, Ruminants.

*Corresponding author: akshinde58@yahoo.com


Research Paper

 
Influence of Virginiamycin on Performance of Broilers Fed Two Levels of Energy

 

M.C. Shivakumar, B. Umakantha and S.V. Hosamani

Animal Science Division

University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

(Received July 05, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Shivakumar, M.C., Umakantha, B. and Hosaman, S.V. 2008. Influence of virginiamycin on performance of broilers fed two levels of energy. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 45-51.

Biological trial of 42 days duration was conducted on broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of virginiamycin supplementation with two levels of energy 2900 and 2800 ME kcal/kg during starter and 2950 and 2850 ME kcal/Kg during finisher using 352, day-old chicks. Virginiamycin at the rate of 20 ppm during starter and 10 ppm during finisher was added to each test diet. Supplementation of low energy diets with virginiamycin significantly (P<0.05) improved the body weight over its corresponding unsupplemented group. Feed consumption remained unaffected. Feed efficiency was better in all the virginiamycin supplemented groups. Mortality rate of 1.25 and 5.00 percent was recorded in unsupplemented groups of normal energy and low energy groups respectively but no mortality was recorded in supplemented groups. Litter moisture did not differ significantly (P<0.05) among the groups. Litter score was significantly lower in normal energy with virginiamycin group compared to its unsupplemented control. Total bacterial and cocci counts differed significantly (P<0.05) between supplemented and control groups from second and fourth week onwards. Net economic returns per bird over feed cost was better in all the supplemented groups.

Keywords: Broilers, Virginiamycin, Energy, Performance, Microbial count, Parameters.


Research Paper

Assessment of Macro and Micro Minerals Status of Milch Animals for Developing Area Specific Mineral Mixture for Bharatpur District of Rajasthan

 

M.R. Garg*, B.M. Bhanderi and P.L. Sherasia

Productivity Systems, Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory

National Dairy Development Board, Anand-388 001, India

(Received August 14, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Garg, M.R., Bhanderi, B.M. and Sherasia, P.L. 2008. Assessment of macro and micro minerals status of milch animals for developing area specific mineral mixture for Bharatpur district of Rajasthan. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 53-64.

A study was conducted in Bharatpur district (tropical zone) of Rajasthan, to assess the prevalence of macro and micro-minerals deficiency in animals, by analyzing feed and fodder samples (n=240) at random from various locations. The calcium content (0.14%) was low in concentrate ingredients, except mustard cake (0.74%). Phosphorus content (0.45%) in concentrates was higher in comparison to roughages. The average calcium content in straws (0.34%) was higher in comparison to phosphorus (0.10%). The calcium and phosphorus content in green berseem were 1.33 and 0.31 per cent, respectively. The magnesium content in feedstuffs was adequate (0.38%) to meet the requirement of large ruminants (0.20%). The feed ingredients of the surveyed area were rich in potassium content (1.55%), whereas, sodium content was consistently low in dry roughages (0.14%) and concentrate ingredients (0.064%). The sulphur content was low in crop residues (0.13%), whereas, concentrate feed ingredients (0.18%) were better source of sulphur. Cobalt was occasionally deficient in the diet of animals. However, iron and manganese contents were adequate in the diet of animals, with traditional feeding system. The average copper content was low in straws (5.40 ppm), moderate in green fodders (9.68 ppm) and concentrate ingredients (9.87 ppm). Molybdenum content in feeds was within safe limit (average level<1.25 ppm). Selenium content in most of the feeds and fodder samples was adequate (0.61 ppm) and its supplementation in the diet was not necessary. Zinc was acutely deficient in most of the feedstuffs (average level<26.30 ppm) and needed to be supplemented in the ration of animals for proper productive and reproductive functions. It was apparent from the present study that the feeds and fodders available in tropical zone of Rajasthan may not meet the requirements for calcium, phosphorus, sodium, sulphur, zinc, copper and cobalt in order to sustain a milk production of ~8 kg/day. Hence, it is necessary to supplement these minerals in the ration by formulating area specific mineral mixture.

Keywords: Calcium, Phosphorus, Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Buffalo, Tropical zone, Rajasthan.

*Corresponding author: mrgarg@nddb.coop


Research Paper

Effect of Graded Levels of Zinc Supplementation on Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Male Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Calves

S.E. Jadhav, A.K. Garg* and R.S. Dass

Center of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India

(Received March 06, 2007)

ABSTRACT

Jadhav, S.E., Garg, A.K. and Dass, R.S. 2008. Effect of graded levels of zinc supplementation on growth and nutrient utilization in male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 65-72.

Eighteen Murrah male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves (219.2±5.76 kg body weight; ~14-15 months of age) were assigned into three groups of six animals in each in a randomized block design. Experimental feeding was similar in the three groups (concentrate mixture and ad libitum wheat straw), except for the level of zinc (as zinc sulphate) supplementation, which were 0, 35 and 70 ppm in Gr. I, II and III, respectively. The study was conducted for a period of 120 days including a 6 days metabolism trial. The mean dry matter (DM) intake was comparable (P>0.05) at 73.83, 72.76 and 75.59 g/kgW0.75 in Gr. I, II and III, respectively. Intake and digestibility of organic nutrients including fibre fractions were also similar (P>0.05) among the three groups. Intake of N, Ca and P, their excretion through faeces and urine and balances were also similar (P>0.05) among the three groups. However, average daily gain of the calves was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Gr. III (601.4 g/d), as compared to Gr. I (547.4 g/d) and Gr. II (566.7 g/d). Feed (DM) required per unit of body weight gain was also significantly (P<0.05) lower in Gr. III (8.97), as compared to Gr. I (10.3). These results indicated that supplementation of 70 ppm zinc in the basal diet containing about 35 ppm zinc may improve the growth performance and feed conversion efficiency in the male buffalo calves. However, further studies with more number of animals are suggested.

Keywords: Buffalo calves, Zinc supplementation, Nutrient utilization, Growth rate.

*Corresponding author: garg@ivri.up.nic.in

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Research Paper

Utilization of Canola Oil and Beef Fat Coated Commercial Diets by African Catfish

(Clarias gariepinus) Juveniles

S. Appelbaum* and A. Jesu Arockia Raj

The Bengis Centre for Desert Aquaculture

The Albert Katz Department of Dryland Biotechnologies

The Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boker Campus 84990, Israel

(Received August 04, 2007)

ABSTRACT

Appelbaum, S. and Arockiaraj, A.J. 2008. Utilization of canola oil and beef fat coated commercial diets by African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 73-79.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the utilization of canola oil and beef fat as lipid from different sources by African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The fish were fed plant oil (canola oil) and animal fat (beef fat) coated commercial extruded diets for 40 days. The catfish were reared in a fresh water flow through system (0.5 ml/min) at 30°C and 0.2–0.4 ppt temperature and salinity, respectively. The feed was coated with lipid sources at three different concentrations viz. 20% canola oil, 20% beef fat, and 10% canola oil plus 10% beef fat. The control diet was not sprayed with any lipid sources. Three replicates were maintained for each treatment. The fishes were fed to satiation, three times a day at 0900, 1300 and 1700 hrs. The highest specific growth rate (SGR; 1.33%d-1) and the best food conversion ratio (FCR; 0.94) were obtained when the fish were fed a 20% canola oil coated diet. Feeding this diet the survival was 86.6%. The SGR of juveniles fed 20% canola oil coated commercial diet was statistically significant (P<0.05) compared with the growth rate of juveniles fed 20% beef fat and 10% canola oil plus 10% beef fat coated commercial diets.

Keywords: Canola oil, Beef fat, Lipid utilization, Clarias gariepinus.

*Corresponding author: sappl@bgu.ac.il


Research Paper

Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Cottonseed on the Reproductive Performance of

Surti Buffaloes

 

J.L. Chuadhary and Hem Raj Jet

Livestock Research Station

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313 601, India

 

(Received November 14, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Chuadhary, J.L. and Jat, H.R. 2008. Effect of feeding different levels of cottonseed on the reproductive performance of Surti buffaloes. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 81-88.

Eighteen lactating Surti buffaloes in early stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each on the basis of body weight (475.83±13.23 kg) and milk yield (6.75±0.32 kg) and were allotted to three dietary treatments viz. T1 – zero per cent cottonseed in concentrate mixture, T2 – 30 per cent cottonseed in concentrate mixture and T3 – 60 per cent cottonseed in concentrate mixture. Additionally, all groups were fed on a basal roughage consisting of 15 kg green Lucerne and ad libitum sorghum stover. The buffaloes of T3 group consumed significantly (P<0.05) more DM, DCP and TDN than T1 group, but there were no significant differences were observed between T2 and T1 groups. The milk yield and fat in milk were affected (P<0.05) by the level of cottonseed given to buffaloes. The average 6 per cent FCM yield 9.21, 10.16 ands 11.32 kg in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. Higher (P<0.05) milk yield was recorded in T3 as compared to T1 group. However, there was no difference in milk yield of T2 and T1 groups. A vasectomised bull was paraded among the experimental animals daily for finding the buffaloes in heat and buffaloes showing complete estrus symptom were inseminated. The average post partum oestrus interval in T1, T2 and T3 was 142.33, 85.0 and 83.0 days, respectively. The mean service period was 292.50, 184.50 and 172.33 days, respectively in T1, T2 and T3 treatments. The numbers of services required per conception were 5.83, 3.50 and 3.00 in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results showed that higher levels of cottonseed in the diet substantially improved the milk yield and post partum reproductive performance of buffaloes.

Keywords : Cottonseed, Surti buffalo, Milk production, Reproduction, Sorghum stover.


Research Paper

Effect of Starvation with Subsequent Realimentation with Respect to Compensatory Growth of Indian Major Carp, Rohu (Labeo rohita H.)

 

S.K. Prabhakar, P. Sardar* and R.C. Das

Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Kolkata Centre

Kolkata-700 091, India

(Received June 12, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Prabhakar, S.K., Sardar, P. and Das, R.C. 2008. Effect of starvation with subsequent realimentation with respect to compensatory growth of Indian major carp, Rohu (Labeo rohita H.). Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 89-96.

The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of starvation followed by the realimentation for culture of rohu. Five different feeding schedules were tried by altering the period of starvation and realimentation of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diet. The control group (TCS) was fed @ 3% of body weight for 90 days trial period and other experimental groups also fed at 3% of BW, were alternatively starved and fed adopting of cycles of 3 (T1S), 7 (T2S), 15 (T3S) or 25 (T4S) days during 90 days trial period. Feed was offered to replicates of 10 fingerlings with three replicates per experimental group, twice at morning and at afternoon. Results indicated that the deprived fish of T1S and T2S groups showed compensatory growth with hyperphagia, better feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ration. However, the retention of different nutrients was almost similar among all treatment groups. Fish showed compensatory growth had still lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit value, total erythrocytic count, total plasma protein, plasma glucose and, total plasma lipid and liver glycogen in comparison to control at the end of 90 days trial. These findings suggested that a cyclic feeding schedule with starvation for 3 to 7 days followed by realimentation for same period is promising for use in rohu culture as they result in saving of feed cost without compromising the performance of fish.

Keywords: Starvation, Re-alimentation, Nutrient utilization, Haematology, Rohu (Labeo rohita).

*Corresponding Author: parimalsardar2004@yahoo.co.in


Research Paper

Prediction of Grain Content of Compounded Feeds

Madhu Shelly, S. Saijpaul* and P.K. Naik

Department of Animal Nutrition

Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Ludhiana-141 004, India

(Received March 04, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Shelly, M., Saijpaul, S. and Naik, P.K. 2008. Prediction of grain content of compounded feeds. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 97-104.

Ten sets of compounded feeds (T1-T10) having 2 to 20% grain of maize (MC), rice kani (RC) or wheat (WC) and six more sets of compounded feeds containing 25 to 50 per cent maize (T11-T16) were analyzed to develop equations for predicting the grain level. At the same level of grain, the NDF value differed (P<0.05) for MC, RC and WC but the starch content remained similar. Every 2% increase in grain level increased (P<0.05) the starch content of the compounded feeds but the change in trend of NDF values was less consistent. For predicting the grain content, 14 simple linear regression equations based upon the starch and NDF values of the compounded feeds were developed and the predictability of grain content had more than 85 per cent coefficient of correlation (r2). To test the accuracy of the derived prediction equations, several compounded feeds with known grain levels of 10 - 48% were formulated. The starch and NDF values were fitted in the derived equations and the r2 values were determined. The equation Y = -14.31 + 1.323 X; where, Y = the grain content and X = the starch content of the compounded feed, had high accuracy of prediction with grain content up to 30 per cent. From the above study, it may be concluded that the prediction equations based on the starch content are most reliable for predicting the grain content of the compounded feeds containing maize, rice kani or wheat up to 30 per cent level.

Keywords: Prediction equation, Grain, Maize, Broken rice, Wheat, Compounded feed.

*Corresponding Author:  sksaijpaul@rediffmail.com


Short Communication

 

 Nutritional Evaluation of Sewan (Lasiurus sindicus) Grass Hay in

Marwari Horses of Arid Region

 

R. Nehra*, G.R. Purohit, T. Sharma, R.K. Dhuria and R.A. Legha

Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary & Animal Science

Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001, India

(Received June 06, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Nehra, R., Purohit, G.R., Sharma, T., Dhuria, R.K. and Legha, R.A. 2008. Nutritional evaluation of sewan (Lasiurus sindicus) grass hay in Marwari horses of arid region. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 105-109.

Marwari stallions (5-6 year age and 345 kg BW) were fed on a sole diet of sewan grass (Lasiurus sindicus) hay in order to define its nutritive value for horses. The grass contained 2.45% DCP, 57.47% TDN, 1:22.46 nutritive ratio and 52.31% starch equivalent. The daily dry matter intake was recorded to be 2.77 kg/100 kg BW equivalent to 119.80 g/kg W0.75 indicative of its high palatability in horses. The average digestibility coefficients were found to be 52.39, 55.75, 45.46, 47.04, 67.35, 39.70, 30.66, 49.48 and 47.91 for DM, CP, CF, EE, NFE, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose, respectively. The intake of digestible nutrients i.e. DCP (236 g/d) and DE (24.43 Mcal/d) revealed that a sole feeding of the hay is adequate to meet the maintenance requirements of mature horses at rest. It was observed from the study that horses can efficiently utilize sewan grass hay and it can serve as basal roughage source for horses in arid regions of country.

Keywords: Sewan grass hay, Digestibility, Marwari horses, Arid region.

*Corresponding Author:  raj_vet_ nehra76@yahoo.com


Short Communication

Effect of Grinding on Apparent and True Digestibilities of Amino Acids of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoides) in Adult Roosters

P. Vasan*, Narayan Dutta, A.B. Mandal and K. Sharma

Division of Animal Nutrition

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar–243 122

(Received February 09, 2007)

ABSTRACT

Vasan, P., Narayan Dutta, Mandal, A.B. and Sharma, K. 2008. Effect of grinding on apparent and true digestibilities of amino acids of pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) in adult roosters. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 111-114.

The present study was designed to determine the apparent and true digestibility of amino acids of pearl millet in adult cockerels. The test ingredient was offered as per Farrell’s rapid ME method either as whole grain or as ground grain to six cockerels each. The apparent digestibilities of most of the amino acids of whole grains were significantly higher than those of broken grains. The true digestibility o cystine, lysine and histidine of whole grain was significantly (P<0.05) higher than those observed in broken pearl millet grain. However, the digestibilities of remaining twelve amino acids studied were similar in whole as well as broken pearl millet grain. Overall the amino acid digestibility of pearl millet was comparable to the true digestibilities of amino acids of other cereal grains such as maize and whit sorghum. The present investigation revealed that pearl millet grain can be offered as a whole rather than coarse grain, since grinding neither improves the amino acid digestibility value nor reduces the feed cost.

Keywords: Amino acids, Digestibility, Pearl millet, Roosters.

*Corresponding Author: drpvasan@yahoo.com

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Short Communication

Accumulation Patterns of Cadmium in Tissues of Indian Catfish Clarias batrachus

 

Puneet Kumar, Y. Prasad*, R. Ranjan, D. Swarup, A.K. Pattanaik and R.C. Patra

Department of Animal Science

M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006, India

(Received June 06, 2007)

ABSTRACT

Kumar, P., Prasad, Y., Ranjan, R., Swarup, D., Pattanaik, A.K. and Patra, R.C. 2008. Accumulation patterns of cadmium in tissues of Indian catfish Clarias batrachus. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 115-119.

A study was conducted to determine the accumulation pattern of cadmium in selected tissues of Clarias batrachus. Sixty Clarias batrachus were first acclimatized for 15 days in plastic pools filled with non-chlorinated water and subsequently divided equally into four groups and subjected to different concentrations (0, 14, 28 and 56 mg/L) of cadmium for a period of 96 hours. Physio-chemical attributes viz. pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, hardness and choride content of aquaria water were monitored. Following 96h of exposure, all the fishes were sacrificed and cadmium content of various organs were assessed. The result revealed that the highest level of cadmium was accumulated in kidney 17.276±0.975 ppm, followed by liver 4.018±0.508, gill 2.881±0.138 and intestine 2.493±0.285. Skin and muscles accumulated the lowest level (0.135±0.010 to 0.982±0.027) of cadmium. The kidney and liver seems to be the target organ for cadmium accumulation with respect to exposure level in Clarias batrachus and may have public health significance for human consumer.

Keywords: Accumulation, Cadmium, Clarias batrachus, Fish, Heavy metal, Toxicity.

*Corresponding Author: yogendraps_2004@yahoo.co.in


Short Communication

Evaluation of Paddy Straw Based Complete Feeds through In vitro Dry Matter Digestibility

 

P.P. Das, B. Roy and Parimal Sardar*

Department of Animal Nutrition

West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700 037, India

(Received July 05, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Das, P.P., Roy, B. and Sardar, P. 2008. Evaluation of paddy straw based complete feeds through in vitro dry matter digestibility. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 127-132.

A study was undertaken to evaluate three potential complete feeds made from locally available feed ingredients through in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). Three fistulated steers used as donors of rumen inoculums were fed the same three complete feeds (CRI, CRII and CRIII) after proper adaptation. The roughage: concentrate ratio in CRI, CRII and CRIII was maintained at 60: 40 but the cost/kg diet were Rs. 3.33, 3.70 and 3.91/kg diet, respectively. The CP, EE and TA of the three complete feeds ranged between 11.45-11.50, 3.07-3.32 and 12.61-13.21 per cent, respectively, indicating little variations. However, variation was apparent in the fibre fractions of the three feeds attributable to varying contents of the fibrous feed ingredients. Overall IVDMD (%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in CRI (50.67±0.82) followed by CRIII (47.00±0.89) and in CRII (43.33±0.67). Overall TVFA (meq/100ml) production was significantly (P<0.05) higher in CRI (12.76±0.30) than CRII (11.01±0.63) and CRIII (11.05±0.43) but values between CRII and CRIII did not differ significantly. It may be concluded that CR1 is superior to CRII and CRIII in terms of IVDMD, in vitro TVFA production and cost of formulation.

Keywords: Complete feed, Rumen fermentation, In vitro dry matter digestibility, Cattle.

*Corresponding Author: parimalsardar2004@yahoo.co.in

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Short Communication

Performance of the Broiler on Replacement of Maize with Different Levels of Whole and Peeled Cassava Tuber Meals

S.K. Sahoo*, S.K. Naskar, B.K. Panda, C.M. Mohapatra, M.K. Padhi,

S.C. Giri and S.K. Panda

Regional Centre, Central Avian Research Institute

Jokalundi, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India

(Received August 16, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Sahoo, S.K., Naskar, S.K., Panda, B.K., Mohapatra, C.M., Padhi, M.K., Giri, S.C. and Panda, S.K. 2008. Performance of the broiler on replacement of maize with different levels of whole and peeled cassava tuber meals. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 121-126.

An experiment was conducted to study the performance of broilers on replacement of maize with different levels of whole and peeled cassava tuber meals. Day old broiler chicks (n =125) of either sex were randomly divided into five groups having equal number of chicks in each group. The control group (T1) was provided with conventional ration without any cassava tuber meal. The chicks of T2 and T3 were provided with ration by replacing maize with whole cassava tuber meal at 20 and 40%, respectively. Similarly, the T4 and T5 chicks were fed with ration replacing maize with peeled cassava meal at 20 and 40%, respectively. The body weight of birds at six weeks of age was 1571.16±27.72, 1470.17±28.93, 1426.15±26.87, 1538.59±29.47 and 1653.57±20.34g in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, with no significant differences in the weight gain between the groups. Significantly (P<0.01) higher metabolizability of protein and nitrogen balance was observed in T4 and T5 than other groups. Glucose, glutamateoxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase values in the serum samples did not revealed any significant difference between the groups. Significantly (P<0.05) higher percentage of breast meat was observed in control and T3 than other groups. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney showed mild hyperplacia of bile duct, congestion and focal infiltration of inflammatory cells in liver of T3. From this experiment it was concluded that cassava tuber meals could be incorporated inbroiler ration by replacing maize upto 40 per cent.

Keywords: Cassava tuber meals, Broiler, Performance, Maize.

*Corresponding Author: sahoosk4@rediffmail.com


Short Communication

Comparative Evaluation of Ryegrass Varieties in Buffalo Calves by Chemical,

In situ and In vivo Techniques

 

Ajaib Singh, M.S. Gill, K.P. Puri and U.S. Tiwana

Department of Animal Nutrition

Guru Angad Dev Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141 004, India

(Received December 04, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Singh, A., Gill, M.S., Puri, K.P. and Tiwana, U.S. 2008. Comparative evaluation of ryegrass varieties in buffalo calves by chemical, in situ and in vivo techniques. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 133-136.

The nutritive value of a new cutlivar of Ryegrass variety V2 was compared with the standard variety of Punjab Ryegrass No. 1. Six male buffalo calves were divided into two equal groups. Fodder from third cut of both the varieties was offered ad lib to both the groups for 14 days followed by 5 days metabolic trial. The crude protein content was 1.5% more in Ryegrass variety V2 (15.2%) than that of Punjab Ryegrass No. 1 (13.7%) whereas the ether extract contents of both the varieties were quite similar. However, cell wall constituents were slightly higher in variety V2. The prediction of DM intake (kg/100 kg BW) was found to be slightly less than that of in vivo studies. Apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract were found to be more in variety V2 as compared to the check variety. The nutritional quality of variety V2 in terms of % DCP and TDN (12.07±0.31, 74.53±1.60) were higher as compared to the check variety (10.60±0.57, 73.09±2.19). The voluntary DM intake (kg/100 kg BW) was (2.30±0.04 and 2.22±0.06) in two respective varieties. The results of the nutritional yield revealed that variety V2 produced more DCP and TDN (15.40±0.85 and 95.1±1.78 q/ha) than the check variety (11.85±0.79 and 82.72±2.44 q/ha). The quality parameters in terms of DCP and TDN indicated that the variety V2 has edge over the check variety Punjab Ryegrass No. 1.

Keywords: Ryegrass, Nutritive value, Variety, Degradability.


Short Communication

Livestock Feeds and Feeding Practices in Rural Sundarbans Delta of India

S.K. Das and Hema Tripathi*

Krishi Vigyan Kendra

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India

(Received July 28, 2006)

ABSTRACT

Das, S.K. and Tripathi, H. 2008. Livestock feeds and feeding practices in rural sundarbans delta of India. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 8: 137-142.

The aim of the study was to explore, understand and document livestock feeds and feedings practices traditionally followed by the rural people in Sundarbans delta of India A qualitative participatory case study design was used for the present study with an anthropological approach to field research in the four identified villages. Various tools of participatory rural appraisal like semi–structured interview, micro-environment mapping, listing, on-site observation, seasonal analysis, and photography were applied for generation, collection, and documentation of various issues from local people’s perspectives. The study reveals that livestock feeding mainly consists of grazing complemented and supplemented with stall feeding. Grazing or tethering contributed bulk of the feed. Stall feeds mainly comprised of paddy and its byproducts. Grazing practices varied with the sowing and harvesting time of paddy, and also with the intensity of cropping. Grazing starts freely in the agricultural field after harvesting of wet paddy (November to January) and continued until sowing (May to July). Tethering starts from sowing and continued till harvesting. Movement of domestic fowls was restricted mainly at the time of wet paddy sowing. The study provided valuable information that may be taken into consideration while planning an extension intervention in order to improve the situation. Many locally available grasses and plants can effectively and efficiently be utilized as valuable livestock feeds which presently remain unutilized. Seasonality of feed scarcity may be overcome to some extent by adopting the practice of hay feeding.

Keywords: Feed resources, Feeding practice, Sundarbans, Livestock, India.

*Corresponding Author: hematripathi1@yahoo.co.in


   
 

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